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Sublimation Technology Overview

2013/7/22      view:
Sublimation is a traditional screen printing by sublimation transfer printing the ink on the paper (or plastic film), the graphic printed paper (or film) and fabric overlap heat, pressure or less pressure, the paper (or film) on the dye sublimation transfer into the gas phase to the fabric. In addition to the outer fabric can also be transferred to the ceramic, metal and other products on. Sublimation technology transfer image is characterized by colorful, rich layers, the effect can be comparable with the printing. The difference is that the printing ink dye transfer by sublimation, penetrate the surface, after the formation of condensate bright color images. So durable heat transfer products, the image will not fall off, cracking and fading.
With the rapid development of high technology, thermal transfer technology and the level has been further expanded and enhanced heat transfer technology widely used in image processing and computer design, and then through high-quality inkjet printer to print images on paper (or film ), and eliminating the making process, may also be coated on a plastic film sublimation ink ribbon into the application of the printing on the smart card technology.

The following three issues are discussed: the fabric sublimation transfer technology; digital inkjet sublimation transfer technology; smart card sublimation transfer technology.

(A) the fabric dye-sublimation transfer technology

Sublimation transfer printing paper used in the fabric printing method is also called gas-phase thermal transfer printing. Transfer printing basic production method is first applied dye made from ink, then printed in paper flowers, paper flowers and then heating the fabric overlap compression or decompression, paper dye sublimation transfer it into a vapor state to the fabric.

1. Sublimation Ink

Sublimation ink mainly by heat rise

(1) Dye

Dye sublimation transfer printing can be used in accordance with the following criteria to select:

① dye molecular weight is generally not more than 350;

② dye gas and intermolecular forces between the fiber and the fiber can be internal diffusion;

③ dye sublimation temperature below 200 ℃ is more appropriate;

④ transfer to the fiber dye color fastness meet Dress;

⑤ fiber on the bright color is good;

⑥ dye base paper with no affinity.

The transfer printing dyes used anthraquinone dyes, azo dyes, cationic dyes.

a. Anthraquinone dye ink formulation and application

Dye molecules of the formula:


Molecular structure formula, X is containing from 1 to 6 carbon atoms, which may be substituted, containing six carbon atoms or a cycloalkyl group. Both Y or Z may be an amino group, a cyano group may be one, the other is a hydrogen atom.

The 20g1-amino-4 - amino-anthraquinone-2-butyl - Cross sodium, 20g of potassium cyanide, sodium carbonate and 1000g of water 50 is heated to 80 ~ 90 ℃, until the solution turns from blue product was completely precipitated so far. The reaction mixture was then filtered, washed with water and dried, the availability of 1 - amino-2 ,3 - dicyano-4 - butyl amino-anthraquinone and a small amount corresponding 2 - or 3 - position of the mixed mono-nitrile compound body.

The mixture was mixed with 5 parts to 95 parts of the dye with the following solution, in ball mill grinding into fine dispersion. The solution comprises 40 parts shellac, 50 parts of methyl alcohol, 8.5 price monoethanolamine, 3.5 parts of morpholine, 0.3 parts of silicone antifoaming agent and 15 parts of water.

The ink was printed on the transfer base paper and dried, and then the transfer paper and a polyester fabric at lower contact 215 ℃ 20s will be very clear blue dyed with good washing and light fastness. In other synthetic fibers and films (such as polyamide, polyacrylonitrile, cellulose diacetate or cellulose triacetate), it can be
For good printing fabrics.

b. Azo dye ink formulation and application

The deep orange-red printing fabric dye molecular structure:

7.5 parts of the molecular structure of the segments containing the above dye bulk preparation of ethyl cellulose and 25% on the inside reconcile prepared containing 90 parts of 100 parts of ethanol, 5 parts of acetone and 5 parts of ethyl cellulose gravure printing emulsion dispersed using a high speed impeller mixer 10min, to obtain 22 Baume degree of dispersion stability of the printing ink. Gravure printing machine according to the ideal flower to take the ink printed as transfer paper, and then dried. Printed on one side of the transfer paper pattern transfer contact with the fabric, get a clear outline of the transfer printing. Transfer process conditions: temperature 210 ℃, pressure 0 ~ 100g/cm2, time 30s. The resulting deep orange-red fabric pattern resistant to sun, washing, perspiration and rubbing fastness characteristics.

In addition to anthraquinone dyes, azo dyes in addition also commonly used anionic, for the yellow dye polyester fiber, polyacrylonitrile fiber printing with disperse dyes, disperse dyes containing a carboxylic acid group, thermal transfer printing black dye A and B and so on.

(2) binders

The resin used for the low-viscosity ethyl cellulose, ethyl hydroxyethyl cellulose (EHEC), long-oil-modified alkyd resin, commonly used solvents are turpentine, terpineol, a high boiling alcohol, aromatic hydrocarbons, Cellosolve etc., there are a few other additives. The main requirements for link material and dye affinity is small, easy to dye release gases and have appropriate printability, preservation and thermal transfer adaptability.

Ink Formulation Examples (for reference only)

Formula One:

Disperse 16%

Barium sulfate 16%

Ethyl cellulose 6%

Tricresyl phosphate 0.9%

Methyl isobutyl ketone 61.1%

Formula II:

Disperse 2%

2 - ethylhexanol 10%

Special epoxy resin 2%

Water 86%

2. Base paper

Transfer printing base paper used should be selected high temperature, resistant to pressure, to prevent the infiltration of the dye low gas permeability and have a higher tensile strength of paper. Surface smoothness to be high, in order to print fine patterns, technical standards
Below.

Absorbent 40 ~ 100g/m2

Breathable 500 ~ 2000mL/min

Quantitative 50 ~ 70g/m2

pH 4.5 ~ 5.5

Dirt is not allowed

Paper flower paper used abroad, the Netherlands products, the whole system softwood pulp manufacturing, which accounted for 50% of chemical equipment, machinery and equipment accounted for 50% of this paper at high temperatures is not yellow, not crisp.

Also useful method softwood sulfite chemical pulp, the paper added filler has good high temperature performance, stuffing recipe is as follows (for reference only).

Melamine 0.8%

Rosin 2.5%

10% of alumina

Talc 20%

Also in the original paper flower paper plus a coating, such as silicone, polyethylene acids and other substances that can increase the transfer effect.

3. Printing Methods

Gravure printing methods are commonly used, letterpress, flat printing and screen printing of four.

4. Transfer printing equipment

Can generally be divided into two into two categories. Two are: one for the batch type, generally known as flat layout; other is a continuous, mainly the hot roller. Two are: one for pressure class; those for decompression categories, namely to take the so-called vacuum suction transfer printing, transfer printing is ideal for decompression deformation fabrics, pile fabric and the fabric does not heat, such as acrylic bulky fabrics, artificial fur and so on. Vacuum transfer printing can also make some impatience sublimation dyes are applied, thus expanding the dye choices; hand can also increase the color yield and transfer speed.

5. Transfer printing process

Pressure class transfer embossing process. With polyester, for example, the most appropriate process conditions should be under 205 ℃ role 20 ~ 30s. In the 170 ~ 180 ℃ and 10s are ineffective. At 180 ~ 190 ℃ and 15 ~ 10s, can only achieve dyeing effect ring. As in the 230 ~ 240 ℃ and 40s over the stubby, if more than 45s at 240 ℃, and is close to melting. Different types of fiber fabric, transfer conditions are different.


In addition to temperature and time, but the pressure transfer printing is a very important condition. If the pressure is too small, the gap between the fabric and paper flowers large, yarn round, so a lot of dye and air gas molecules
Fugitive collision, resulting in poor results, but also easy bleeding of dyes, line thickness and pattern blur. If you increase the pressure, the yarn can be a flat, fabric and paper flowers small gap between the transfer coloring effect, a clear pattern, smooth fine lines. But the pressure is too general deformation, fluff and heavy fabrics morphological changes, and produce the aurora, bringing feel stiff and coloring superficial shortcomings.

6. Next, introduce a screen printing sublimation ink usage

Such ink temperature at 200 ℃ after vaporized dye, the dye in the ink on a variety of plastic with the polyester.

Now not only can use on the fabric, you can also penetrate the computer keyboard attached staining, spectacle frames and other materials on the specific use of Table 3.


The use of dye-sublimation screen printing ink

Color Type
Red, yellow, blue, black, transparent

Use paper

Use paper fine paper better.

Stained in plastic and other needs, or at low temperature dyeing takes a long time, the use of one-sided gold paper valid.


Print
This ink is able to sample the original ink to print the design, but high viscosity may use the appropriate amount of special solvents.

The standard wire mesh of 200 to 270 mesh.

Wash the plate can be thinner.


Ink drying
Drying after printing 20 ~ 30min (25 ℃ temperature). As with 40 ~ 5O ℃ warm air drying, and the drying time can be shortened.

Is best carried out in the next transfer.

Available when urgently speed up the drying temperature and wind.


Transfer operations
A. The transfer temperature of the polyester temperature 190 ~ 200 ℃ (3Os), such as high temperature to harden the fabric, the transfer temperature is too low concentration. Plastic, first confirm the heat resistance of the plastic, then in its transfer within the allowable range, it takes a long time.

B. Pressure
If the pressure is too large transfer concentration becomes low, the pressure is too small printed pattern vague, suitable pressure of 1 ~ 2kg/cm2

C. Heat
Version with direct heat transfer time is short (20 ~ 30s), the transfer time is longer with a hot oven (please test to determine).
Patience
When using poly cool cloth, light, good resistance to washing. Plastic, because of the light, by the time pollution, temperature and water pollution are some problems, so do confirm in advance, and then print the job.


(Two) digital inkjet sublimation transfer

Digital inkjet sublimation transfer is to use a digital camera or scanner and the image data of the professional library, through the computer for image processing and design to produce the desired color is gorgeous, the level of detailed images, equipped with a special dye sublimation through transferring ink jet printer ink image printed by computer design in the base paper, and then the image on the transfer paper through baking forest machines, printers heated or baked baking machine, a few minutes to transfer the image
To plates, cultural Shandeng souvenirs.

1. Sublimation transfer printing paper production

Sublimation transfer printing paper production process and digital color inkjet proofing system similar to that of using a computer to transfer the illustrations, photos, etc. for processing and design, with a digital inkjet printer in the base paper printing, digital inkjet Printers with yellow, magenta, cyan, black four separate ink cartridges, so you can play in the base paper monochrome image, you can play color images. This inkjet printer saves plate making process, reduce production costs, and thermal transfer process more simple.

2. In the cups, plates, plates and other souvenirs on the heat transfer pattern

Electronic digital control with baking cup machine sublimation transfer printing paper can be a pattern within a few minutes onto the cup. Use baking cup machine in the cup to make a beautiful, full-color images, the required consumption of the village is only a special transfer ink and a special coating Xu cup, easy to operate.

Baking pan with electronic digital control machine can be sublimation transfer printing paper with a few minutes to transfer the pattern to the plate. Equipped with special transfer ink, you can use baking machines in a special plate baked a variety of patterns.

Electronic digital control with grilled printer may sublimation transfer printing paper with a few minutes to transfer the pattern to the porcelain, metal plate. For the production of medals, honorary certificates, commemorative plaque, portrait porcelain.

(Three) smart card dye-sublimation color imaging technology penetration

Card card printing earlier had flat printing, letterpress, gravure and screen printing and other printing methods, along with the rapid development of high-tech, card printing and sublimation thermal transfer developed to transfer. Transfer has been discussed in the previous, now focuses sublimation transfer printing on the card in the card application.

Color sublimation transfer card card printing now has two forms, one is the use of a ribbon, the ribbon is divided into yellow, magenta, cyan, black coating for a group of four sections, each with length equal to the length card to Beijing Basch Technology Development Co., Ltd. of PTSO00 smart card device, for example, print speed 28s / card, printheads Resolution 12dot/mm (300dpi), the ribbon can print 250 cards. Card face materials are PVC and PET, etc. are not.

Another is the use of dichroic ribbon color printing process consists of cyan, magenta, yellow, black four ribbons printed separately, that is, per color printing unit to install only one color ribbon, thus avoiding the traditional four color segmentation the shortcomings inherent in the ribbon, reducing the material cost, to achieve a color personalization, and printhead life greatly extended. If Beijing Basch Technology Development Co., Ltd. sales PT6000 smart card equipment printing resolution of 300dpi, the maximum production rate of 650 cards / h (including data transmission time), the ribbon can print volume 3300 to 10,000 cards, card face material ABS , PC, PET, PVC, etc.